The WhatChaMaCallit-Schwert

In Sweden we have a saying; "A loved child has many names" and looking at what is today called a federschwert this seems to be true for this type of sword as well, at least if we think of it in general terms as a sword for training.

From the Jörg Breu Sketchbook of 1545.

Historically, the simplest choice of word was of course schwert, and it was certainly the most commonly used alongside of the less used langen schwert, but terms like paratschwert and fechtschwert have also been used historically, at least in non-fechtbucher sources, although it is hard to tell what the words actually mean. This article attempts to explore the historical background and use of these different terms.


A proposed depiction of Johannes Liechtenauer holding a training sword, from the "von Danzig Fechtbuch" of 1452

The term federschwert is quite clearly a neologism, i.e. a modern, reinvented term that wasn't used historically with the same meaning as we confer to it today. Personally, I don't have a problem with the term federschwert since it is already quite old and pretty much established already. And more importantly, since it fills a gap in our vocabulary by not only defining the sword as a training sword, but also as a specific type of training sword with a flared schilt.

This is how language works. It changes, mutates and evolves with the need for new words or lack of need for old words. It is difficult to really say that anything is wrong in the long run, when a certain percentage of a group of people use their language in a certain way. This is why grammar today is just as often descriptive as it is prescriptive.

However, investigating the historical use of these terms is interesting. The word federschwert appears to stem from a paragraph describing the "feder" as being the preferred weapon of the Federfechter, in Egerton Castle's "Schools and Masters of Fencing - From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century" of 1885. According to Castle the "feder" was slang for the rapier, although it is uncertain if the term could include training longswords as well. This use can be seen in Johann Fischart's German translation of Rabelais' Gargantua from 1570, where;

"... die Franckfortische Meister deß Langen Schwerts/ schrieb mit Dinten/ so ficht wie Blut/ die Feder must ihm oben schweben"

"the Frankfurt Master of the longsword / write with ink that looks like blood, the feder must soar above him"

Interestingly enough this passage is part of a few paragraphs that appear to have been added by Fischart in the German edition only. It is not part of the French original or the English translation.

The word "federschwert" is used now and then in literature, but is then commonly used to describe fighting with the quill, as in Anti-Colloquium by Conrad Burckard from 1653, in Gotthard Heidecker's Die Leyr Tyri: Das ist: Altfränkische Possen, mit welchen P. Rudolf Baffer of 1739, and as in e.g. Peter Wolfter's Geschichte der Veränderungen des teutschen Reichsstaats of 1789. It has been suggested though, that the term stems from the swords of the Freifechter von der Feder, but that claim needs proper corroboration still.

Another clue to Castle's claim may perhaps be found in the following Marxbrüder poem by the furrier gesell Christoff Jung von Breißlaw, recounted in Wassmannsdorff's Sechs Fechtschulen, as translated by Dr Helmut Nickel, Curator Emeritus, Arms and Armor, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY NY:

Ein Marx Bruder bin Ich worn
Dieser thut den Federfechtern Zorn.
A Marxbrother I have become
who is angry at the Federfechters.

Dann Ich gedenkt was umb ein gennss fed' mag sein
Man Liehe mir nit draud ein halb seidlein wein
When I thought about it, what a goosefeather would be worth, nobody would give me [for it] half a mug of wine.

Was solt Ich dan haben der Gennss federn ehr
Schilt und helm zieren mich viel mehr
Why should I give honor to the goose feathers,
Shield and helmet are much better decor for me,

Die Kaiserlich Mayestät MarxBrudern thut geben
Die nach solcher Ritterlicher Kunst streben
His Imperial Majesty favors [us] Marxbrothers
who strive for such a chivalrous Art.

Dann Gennssfed'n und Khil
Braucht man nit zum Ritterspiel
Because goose feathers and quills
are of no use for knightly games

Dann hert federn dinn Pappier Schwarze Dinnten
Soll man Inn den Schreibstuben finnden!!
Because, hear ye, feather thin paper [and] black ink
Should be found only in a scriptorium

Poems like these were crafted by the fencers themselves and used to introduce themselves while cleverly insulting the opponent of the rivaling guild. Another example of this poetic language can be found in the following Federfechter rhyme by Thoma Han von Lubeckh from 1579.

Die Edel federn schwinng Ich auff
von deinnet wegen schag Ich drauff
Ich treff oder werdt getroffen
Auf Gottes beystanndt thue ich hoffen,
Wer mich, mein ehrlich Hanndwerck, Unnd die herrn Von d' feder veracht
Den schlag Ich zwischen die Ohren das Im d' haltz kracht.

Most likely, Castle's idea of a federschwert, comes from an over-generalization or misunderstanding of poetic comparisons such as the above; comparisons between a sword and a pen, which the craftsmen of the Marxbrüder used to ridicule the students of the Freifechter guild.

So what's with this feder (feather) and the Freyfechter then? Well, there are several theories regarding where the "feder" originates from. One is that it refers to the feathers in the hats of the Federfechter, which is again mentioned by Johann Fischart in Gargantua as early as 1570, where he says "among all the gods, Mercury alone wears a hat and, as a good Federfechter, sports feathers on it".

Students in Tübingen, 1601. From the Weckherlin Stammbuch. Notice the feathered hats.

According to John Polemon's All the famous Battels that haue bene fought in our age... of 1578 the Verloren Haufe/Enfants Perdus used to carry plumes of white feathers on their hats. It is said that having survived being a member of this unit automatically meant cash gifts and a promotion afterwards was expected. So perhaps there is a link here, where the Freyfechter ostrich feathers refer to this particular military unit?

These men do they call, of their immoderate fortitude and stoutnesse, the desperats forlorne hopen, and the Frenchmen enfans perdus: and it is lawfull for them, by the prerogative of their prowesse, to beare an ensigne, to have conducte and double wages all their life long. Neyther are the forlorne knowen from the rest by anye other marke and cognisance than the plumes of white feathers, the which after the manner of captaines, they doe tourn behinde, waveryng over theyr shoulder with a brave kynde of riot...

Schlachtordnung bei Dreux Ivry, by Franz Hogenberg 1590. Note the Enfants Perduz at the bottom right

Various feathers were of course carried by many, even peasants and women, but they also often carried a significance as can be seen in the quote from Polemon above. Peacock feathers e.g. symbolised the Habsburg Empire. Ostrich feathers were exotic and expensive, being imported from Africa and thus were a bit of an expression of success. The symbolism associated with them was among other things, steadfastness and turning to Christ.
All this is of course highly speculative, but a lead well worth researching in the future.

It is also highly intriguing to note, that the various protestant authors often are called "federfechter", ie "quill fencers" in the late 1500s and 1600s, eg. in "Probstein oder Censur des Lutherischen Tractätls..." by Mattias Faber in 1650 and "Lilium Sionaeum Quinquagenâ Prole foecundum..." from 1695, given that there appears to have existed strong connotations between some of the Freyfechter von der Feder and the Calvinist movement. - Perhaps not so surprisingly, the term federfechter with the meaning of pen fencer is still used in many countries, e.g Germany, Sweden and Belgium.

Given this poetic connotation between federfechter and quill fighting, it is again very interesting to see how the Marxbrüder members (often being furriers or tanners) appear to have ridiculed the Freifechter von der Feder for being scholars and academics (... Because, hear ye, feather thin paper [and] black ink should be found only in a scriptorium).
This opposition between the "working man's" Marxbrüder and the "academic" Freifechter Guild is corroborated by Heinrich von Gunterrodt stating the same in his 1579 treatise, where he describes how the Marxbrüder, come from dirty professions like tanners and connected crafts and think they are better than the Freyfechter von der Feder just because they have the Imperial Privilege, while the Freyfechter, more often being students of the good sciences and arts clearly are superior in fighting.
This also puts new light on the anecdote about Freifechter Heinrich Agrippa, as retold in the Faustus chapbook commentaries of 1587, where the furriers of the Marxbrüder have challenged the students to a fight, but the Freyfechter Heinrich Agrippa scares them away with his reputation for knowing magic.

Students fencing at the University of Tübingen in 1626.

So, perhaps this is where the name originates from, an orginally derogatory word, rooted in a constantly growing opposition between artisans and students, an epithet that the Freyfechter came to carry with pride?

Saint Vitus, from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Another theory that has been suggested is that it refers to what the patron saint of the Freifechter von der Feder and Bohemia, St. Vitus, holds in his hand, but that is simply a misinterpretation of a palm frond, which is a sign of his martyrdom. On the other hand, in his other hand, he holds a rooster, the animal St. Vitus is said to have been boiled alive with and this might partly explain the association with the fanciful feathers of the Freyfechter von der Feder. The rooster is also sometimes used to symbolize the Freyfechter von der Feder, in place of the Griffin which was the official symbol of the Freyfechter Gesellschaft.

Regardless, we can feel quite safe in assuming that federschwert or feder was not a term historically used for training swords other than as a poetic choice of words.


From the Triumphzug der Maximilians I of 1512.

The term Paratschwert has been proposed as a more appropriate term and it has certainly been used in association with the fechtschulen. But what does the name really mean? Well, the word Parat stems from the Latin paratus / parare which means to prepare / be prepared / be ready. The word is also related to the modern German word bereit (or beredd, bereda in Swedish).

Furthermore, parat also means both parrying / floryishing and showing off / displaying, and we know that the fencers carried various arms when processing in a parade and with other associated festivities, like the Schwerttanz (sword dancing). Finally we also know that fencers initiated the fencing events called fechtschulen by floryishing their weapons to show their skill. All these connotations to the word make full sense, given that the parading and the ceremonial sword dancing all prepare for the main event; the Fechtschulen, with fancy display of arms and skills.

So how did they actually use the term paratschwert? Well, looking to the sources, the oldest note I have found is in The Swedish Etymological Wordbook, which generally is quite reliable. This source actually states that a parate-swerdh, as used in 1563-64, is a sword used for a parade and possibly an especially fine one. Also, the modern Swedish word paradsvärd means just that: A sword that you carry in a parade, usually more decorated and not used for anything else.

Next, we see a Fechtschule in Zwickau in 1573 where we are told:

... In mancher Ritterlicher wehr,
Und wie man sie het gebracht her,
Und was noch mehr darzu gehört,
Lang spies, Dusacken und auch Schwert,
Hälleparten und halbe Stangen,
Dollich, und was noch ist abgangen
ein par Dusackn von Leder gmacht,
Die wurden auch auf den plan gebracht
dergleichen waren auch Rappier ,
Ein schöns Paratschwerdt, glaubet mir,
Daran war gar ein schöner Krantz
Wer sein haut wolt wagn in die schantz

Note here the choice of word; 'a most beautiful paratschwert'.

The paratschwert is also mentioned in relation to a fechtschulen in Straßburg on June 5th 1587, where the wife of Lienhart Sollinger, carried a paratschwert and a laurel on her shoulder while parading through the city dressed in man's clothes, alongside of her husband. (She fought several times and received wounds).

Furthermore, in 1589 Christoff Rösener describes the procedure for how a newly approved Meister des Schwerdts receives his masterhood in his treatise Ehren Tittel und Lobspruch der Ritterlichen Freyen Kunst der fechter with the following words:

Wann er in der Prob ist bestandn,
So nimpt man jhn als dann zu handn.
Vnd lest jhn knien auf die Erdt,
Da wird er mit dein Parat Schwerdt.
Vber seine Lenden Creutzweis:
Geschlagen, auffs Hauptmans geheis.

This is a highly prestigious occasion, a moment of intense pride for the new master who has spent many years preparing for his master test and having succeeded he is now finally given his reward, the Meisterbrief in a formal ceremony where a paratschwert is used to "knight" him, while he swears himself to never abandon his mastership for the rest of his life. In a sense he has now both prepared and readied himself and he is made, prepared into a proper master using a specific sword. It would seem likely that a fine sword would be seen as appropriate for such an occasion.

A satirical portrayal of a Maister des Schwerdt being "knighted", by Elias Baeck, 1720. Given that the date is so late, and the image is a satire, the details in the image are not fully trustworthy with regards to historical accuracy

Continuing, the paratschwert is also described, alongside of a fechtschwert in George Reutter's & Nikolaus Pol's chronicles about a schwerttanz performed by 36 furriers (likely Marxbrüder) in Breslau (Wroclaw) in 1620.

...auch ein Approbierter Meister deß langen Schwerdts das Parat wie vor alters breuchlichen gewesen frisch munter und zierlich geschlagen unter solchem den Knaben einem jeden einen Dreyer auff den Kopff geleget und dieselbten im Paratschlagen ihnen ohne alle verfehrung mit dem Ritter oder ParatSchwerdt herab gehawen und geschlagen.

Again, we see the paratschwert used in a ceremony. This source I will return to later, when discussing the fechtschwert.

Schwerttanz und Fechtspiel der Nürnberger Messerschmiede ca 1600

The meaning of the word parat is interesting, but if we interpret it as a parry or a trick, then it gets  a bit confusing, since it describes a meaning that I think would fit most weapons and thus becomes redundant for signifying the sword type. I would suggest that the fact that you can do a parat with a sword doesn't make it a paratschwert. Instead, there are other more important factors that decide the naming of the sword type; factors like context and appearance.

Curiously, it has also been suggested that the term paratschwert is derogatory, meaning a sword used by someone who just shows off but knows little about real fencing, although that claim still needs corroboration.

Balthasar Kuckler 1611

J.A. Petersen appears to equate the Prunkschwert with the Paradeschwert in 1839 in Wanderungen durch das Herzogthum Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg, Volym 1, although that could of course be a misunderstanding, based on how the words were used in the 18th and 19th century. A silvered Parade-degen is mentioned in 1756 in Nederlandsch gedenkboek of Europische mercurius which further seems to indicate the association with fancy parading and ceremonial purposes, at least at that time period, but given that it was connected to the Schwerttanz, ceremony and parading even in 1573, 1587, 1589 and 1620 I really think that was the implication even then. Furthermore, some bidenhänder are known to have grown so large and heavy that they could hardly be used for anything else but parading.

Now, one could think that even if the paratschwert is a sword that is carried while parading it could still be a training sword. This may actually be true, but we should then consider this: If we were to parade about town in our finest clothing, should we bring should we bring the nicked and burred training sword that we use every day, or our finest and shiniest sword? I think this is where the difference between a paratschwert and a regular training sword lies. They may essentially be the same, but the paratschwert is used primarily for ceremonial display and little or no contact. A paratschwert would still be a blunted but otherwise fully functional sword and could certainly be used for fencing, but this was not its primary function.
With that said, we know for certain that sometimes both paratschwerter and fechtschwerter were  carried in the very same parades. However, I have thus far not found a single clear instance of a paratschwert being used for actual fencing.


So what about fechtschwert then? Well fechten simply means fighting, but the word has been combined into various combinations associated with training throughout the centuries. For example, but not limited to:

Fechtschule - In 1494, 1495, 1512, 1531 , 1537 and 1542.
Fechtschwert - pre 1541, 1550, 1575, 1583, 1620, 1671 and 1676.
Fechthaus and Fechtboden - In 1594, 1651 , 1654 and 1670.
Fechtdegen (training rapier) - In 1646, 1647, 1653 and 1660.
Fechthandschuhe (fencing glove) In 1740, 1762 and 1763.
Fechtrapier - In 1661, 1832, 1849 and 1850.
Fechtsäbel - in 1847, 1848 and 1851.

According to Rechtfertigung Der Von Den Gelehrten Misskannten, Verstandesrechten Erfahrungsheillehre der alten scheideskünstigen Geheimärzte..." by Johann Gottfried Rademacher, published in 1843, the Swiss physician, alchemist and occultist Paracelsus (1493-1541) writes in his De Pestilitate:

... so sollen sie doch nicht anders in unsere Hände kommen, denn wie ein gutes Fechtschwert aus des Unerfahrenen Händen, der das Schwert nicht kann brauchen. Aber so wie es in eines erfahrenen Fechtmeisters Hand kommt, und nachmahls der Fechtmeister das Parat damit schlägt, und braucht es nach seinem Willen künstlich, also sage ich...

In Wassmannsdorff's Sechs Fechtschulen we also see in a description of a fechtschulen in Stuttgart in 1575:

Der Hiltebrand im traff das Gschicht
Daß er mehr kont gesehen nicht,
Darzu verwundte wurde hert
Durch Hiltebrandts bloß-Fechtschwert.
Von stundan der verwundte Strauß
Nit mehr wolt fechten und tratt auß.

Here, the Bloß-fechtschwert obviously hurts badly, even blinding the Freyfechter opponent, though most likely from bleeding into the eyes.

Continuing, we find two interesting sources; Des Christlichen Teutschen Groß-Fürsten Herkules Und Der Böhmischen Königlichen Fräulein Valiska from 1676 and Geschichte der Oranien-Nassauischen Länder und ihrer Regenten from 1816 mention the fechtschwert specifically. The latter describes how in 1550  a fencing master is hired for the court of Duke Konrad von Sickingen and fechtschwerter are purchased for the then 13 year old Duke Georg Wilhelm and the other young nobles of the court.

Für die Jungen Grafen und Edelknaben vard ein Fechtmeister bei Hofe gehalten und Fechtschwerter wurden angekauft.

The former source, from 1676 describes a more elaborate story about the Christian Grand Duke Herkules. This text includes a passage describing fencing with fechtschwerter,  hitting the opponent six times over the head, arm, legs and mouth.

... mein Freund es sey euch erlaubet; nam das Fechtschwert welches ihm am bequemesten wahr zur Hand und so bald er mit ihm angebunden hatte gab er ihm fünff Schlage uber Kopf, Arm und Beine, den sechsten aber über das Maul daß er mit den Zahnen blakete und ihngege allderdinges unberühret blieb...


... wie lange er sich die Fechtschwerts gebrauchet hatte: da er zur Antwort bekam; er hatte schon im zehn den Jahre seines Alters sich lassen unterrichten, weil er aber im halben Jahr und drüber sich nit geübet...

Here we even see a fechtschwert being described as "being comfortable in the hand'. All these sources clearly, refer to the fechtschwert as a training sword used for actual fencing.

Another interesting source that we have already looked at, the Kurtze und gründliche Beschreibung des Königlichen Einzuges from 1620, by Georg Reutter, describes a Furrier's guild parade, preceding a sword dance with public fencing by fencing masters in Breslau, the same described in the chronicles of Nikolas Pol, with the following words:

"Diesem seind gefolget 3 Knaben & ein jeder ein Scepter inn der rechten Hand haltende. Darauff andere drey Knaben / Der erste mit einem Paratschwerdt: Der andere & mit einem pahr Fechtschwerter: Der dritte & mit einem par hülzernen Tussacken / Alle in weissen Kitteln & mit Feldbinden & blau unnd weissen heidnischen Schürtzen."

This passage is interesting as we are told that the three boys carry first a Paratschwerdt and then a pair of Fechtschwerter. This I think further reveals a difference in purpose for the two types of swords; the first being a finer sword used for ceremony, the second for training and tournament fighting. The Paratschwert is carried at the very front of the parade, which would seem to indicate a certain importance carried by it (alongside of the laurel wreaths), perhaps even a certain reverance, similar to a relic or a cross.


With the above in mind, I would suggest that if we really feel that another, more historically correct term should be used, then fechtschwert, fechtdegen, fechtrapier and fechtsäbel are appropriate.

Some may think that the term fechtschwert is too broad, not really defining the historical training swords with flared schilts and although this is hard to know for sure, since there is a lack of source material on the topic, I would also suggest that the term may actually have referred to what we today think of as federschwert, considering that the particular type of sword possibly has been used as far back as the first quarter of the 1400s and were particularly common in Blossfechten (unarmoured fencing). In fact, they appear to have been more common than regular, blunt longswords, if we are to trust the illustrated treatises. (For more reading about this specific topic, I refer you to this article: Federschwert or a blunt longsword?)

From the Gladiatoria Fechtbuch of ca 1435.

Furthermore, this type of sword was used by all categories of fencers, both the Marxbrüder, the Freyfechter von der Feder and others.

Detail of Die Fechtschul by Hanns Senger, showing the Marxbrüder in c1550

Finally, although I agree that fechtschwert is just as tautological as paratschwert if we translate Fechten as fight and Parat as parry, it actually makes sense if there was a need to differentiate between ceremonial swords and training swords. It is really no more odd than having the actual German words paradedegen and fechtdegen or the Swedish words fäktsabel and paradsabel which were used exactly with those two different meanings.



1620 Chronicle by Nikolaus Pol quoted in Geschichte der Tanzkunst bei den cultivirten Völkern by Albert Czerwinski in 1862.

1670 Philemeri Irenici Elisii Diarium Europaeum: Insertis variis Actis ..., Volym 21 by Martin Meyer.

1671 Des Teutschen Bauren Oration, so er vor dem Römischen Senat gehalten by Johann Michael Moscherosch & Andreas Bingen.

1676 Des Christlichen Teutschen Groß-Fürsten Herkules Und Der Böhmischen Königlichen Fräulein Valiska Wunder-Geschichte by Andreas Heinrich Bucholtz.



1563-1564 -  Notes describing a Parate-swerdh stored in ArkliR 1560, avd. 3,  The Swedish Etymological Wordbook by Svenska Akademien.

1570 , 1617 Gargantua – German translation

1573 Description of Fechtschule in Zwickau as retold in "Sechs Fechtschulen" by Karl Wassmannsdorff.

1589 Ehren Tittel und Lobspruch der Ritterlichen Freyen Kunst der fechter by Christoff Rösener.

1620 Kurtze und gründliche Beschreibung des Königlichen Einzuges, Welchen by Georg Reutter.

1620 Chronicle by Nikolaus Pol quoted in Geschichte der Tanzkunst bei den cultivirten Völkern by Albert Czerwinski in 1862.

1866 Jagd-Zeitung, Volym 9



1646, 1647 Les Visiones De Don De Quevedo: Satyrische Gesichte Philanders vom ..., Volym 6 by Johann Michael Moscherosch.

1653, 1681 Guidon de la langue Françoise by Nathanaël Duëz.

1660 Le Guidon allemande by Daniel Martin.

1670 Kurze französische Grammatica by Nathanaël Duëz.

1671 Indiculus universalis latino-Gallicus: cum graec. et germ. Voc by François Pomey.

1674 Nouveau Et Ample Dictionnaire De Trois Langues: Divisé en III ..., Volym 2 by Antoine Oudin.

1687 Le Secret d'apprendre la langue Françoise: Avec un Supplément, Volym 2 by Jean Menudier.

1691 Teutsch- und Italienische Gespräche by Jean Nicolas de Parival & Matthias Kramer.



1661 Heraclitus und Democritus, das ist: Fröliche und traurige Geschichte by Jean-Pierre Camus, Georg-Philipp Harsdörffer.

1832 Ueber Wallensteins Privatleben: Vorlesungen gehalten in dem Museum zu München by Julius Max Schottky.

1849 Europa: Chronik der gebildeten Welt by Ferdinand Gustav Kühne.

1850 Drei Novellen: 1. Frau von Brabantane (Novelle von Alfred de Menciaux.) 2 ... by Alfred de Menciaux.



1847 Streffleurs militärische Zeitschrift, Ausgave 4–6

1848 Verhandlungen der Zweiten Kammer der Landstände des Großherzogthums Hessen by Hessen-Darmstadt Kammer der Landstände (2).

1851 Verhandlungen der Ersten Kammer der Landstände des Grossherzogthums Hessen by Hessen-Darmstadt Kammer der Landstände (1).



1570 , 1617  Gargantua by François Rabelais – German translation (a poetic 'Feder')

1631 Affentheurliche, naupengeheurliche geschichtklitterung: von thaten vnd (Gargantua)... by François Rabelais (a poetic 'Feder').

1739 Die Leyr Tyri: Das ist: Altfränkische Possen, mit welchen P. Rudolf Baffer by Gotthard Heidecker. (poetic for fencing with a pen)

1789 Geschichte der Veränderungen des teutschen Reichsstaats by Peter Wolfter (Luther’s 'theological' pen).

1917 Englische Staatsmänner by Geza Silberer & Sil-Vara.


1531 Chronica, Zeytbuch vnd geschychtbibel von anbegyn biß inn diß gegenwertig... by Sebastian Franck.

1537 Dictionarium latino, Germanicum, et vice versa Germanicolatinum, ex optimis... by Petrus Dasypodius.

1542 Weltbuch: spiegel vnd bildtnis des gantzen Erdtbodens by Sebastian Franck.

1559 Postilla, oder Auslegung der Sonn- und Feyrtäglichen Evangelien by Basilius Faber.

1563 Endlicher Bericht von seiner Lehre in den Artikeln, darin er von And ... by Abdias Praetorius.



1651 Teutsche Sprachkunst by Justus Georg Schottel.

1696 Concionator Extemporalis. Das ist: Eilfertiger Prediger. Oder ... by Franz Heffner.



1594 Affentheurlich Naupengeheurliche Geschichtklitterung: Von Thaten und Rhaten... by Johann Fischart & François Rabelais

1654 Topographia circuli Burgundici: Das ist, Beschreibung und Abbildung der ... by Martin Zeiller.

1661 Heraclitus und Democritus, das ist: Fröliche und traurige Geschichte by Jean-Pierre Camus, Georg-Philipp Harsdörffer.

1670 Dialogues François et Allemans selon le langage du temps by Jean Nicolas de Parival.

1687 Le Secret d'apprendre la langue Françoise: Avec un Supplément, Volym 2 by Jean Menudier.



1740 Neues Teutsch-Frantzösisches-Wörter-Buch by Pierre Rondeau.

1762, 1763, 1773, 1789 Nouveau dictionnaire françois et allemand, allemand et françois by François Roux.

1764 Kongelig Dansk Ord-Bog, oplyst med Exempler og Talemaader, Volym 2 by Hans von Aphelen.

1777 Thesaurus linguarum latinae ac germanicae scholastico-literarius ... by Johann Philipp von Carrach.

1784 Virgils Aeneis, travestirt von Blumauer, Volym 1–2 by Aloys Blumauer & Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schaber.

1791 Versuch eines Handbuchs der Erfindungen: G, H und J, Volym 2 by Gabriel Christoph & Benjamin Busch.


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